Eye Problems

Refractive Errors

Refractive errors are the most common vision problems characterized by the reduction of the visual acuity. There are different types of refractive errors:

Nearsightedness (myopia) is when the image seen far away is not clear.


Farsightedness (hyperopia) is when the image seen at near is not clear. Some young people may not notice any problems with their vision until the natural lens inside the eye starts to lose its ability to accommodate (change its shape in order to focus on the object).

Child Playing at Water's Edge

Astigmatism is a when the image is not focused evenly. This is caused by an oval shape of the cornea.


Presbyopia is when the image up close becomes more difficult to see due to the age-related changes in the natural lens.

• Refractive errors can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses


A cataract is a clouding of the lens inside the eye which leads to a decrease in vision. It is the most common cause of reversible blindness and most cataracts are a result of the aging process. Cataracts occur when there is a buildup of protein in the lens that makes it cloudy. This prevents light from passing clearly through the lens, causing some loss of vision. The only treatment for cataract is a surgical removal of the opaque lens. Nowadays, it is a very safe and effective procedure done under drops of anesthesia, resulting in improvement of vision from the first day.



Glaucoma is a disease of the optic nerve which results in slow unnoticed loss of visual fields. If a patient has glaucoma, the fluid does not drain properly out of the eye. The increased pressure, called intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve, which transmits images to the brain. If damage to the optic nerve from high eye pressure continues, glaucoma will cause permanent loss of vision. Without treatment, glaucoma can cause total permanent blindness.

• Eye drops

Dry Eyes

Dry eye syndrome, or dry eye disease, occurs when the eyes do not make enough tears, or the tears evaporate too quickly because the oil glands are blocked or abnormal. This leads to the eyes drying out and becoming inflamed (red and swollen) and irritated. The condition is also known as dry eyes or keratoconjunctivitis sicca. If the main problem is a blockage of the oil-secreting glands, then the condition is called blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction or lid margin disease.

• Lubricating drops
• Punctal plugs


Blepharitis-compareBlepharitis is an inflammation that affects the eyelids, involving the part of the eyelid where the eyelashes grow. It commonly occurs when tiny oil glands located near the base of the eyelashes malfunction or it can be caused by an excess growth of bacteria. This leads to inflamed, irritated and itchy eyelids. Blepharitis is often a chronic condition that is difficult to treat. Blepharitis can be uncomfortable and may be unattractive, but it usually doesn’t cause permanent damage to your eyesight.



en-conjunctivitisConjunctivitis, commonly known as pink eye, is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids. When small blood vessels in the conjunctiva become inflamed, they’re more visible. This is what causes the whites of your eyes to appear reddish or pink. Pink eye is commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection or an allergic reaction. Though pink eye can be irritating, it rarely affects your vision. Treatments can help ease the discomfort of pink eye. Because pink eye can be contagious, early diagnosis and treatment can help limit its spread.



A pterygium is a growth of pink, fleshy tissue that develops on the conjunctiva or mucous membrane that covers the white part of your eye. It is a benign or noncancerous growth that is often shaped like a wedge. In some cases, a pterygium can extend to the cornea. The exact cause is unknown; experts believe that significant risk factors are prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light, dry eye, irritants such as dust and wind.
Pterygium is usually not a serious condition, but it can cause annoying symptoms such as a feeling of a foreign body in the eye. It usually doesn’t cause problems or require treatment, although they can be removed if they interfere with your vision.




co0055-220x172Our eyelids, like the rest of our body, have little glands, called the meibomian glands. These glands can become blocked or clogged from narrowing of the opening or hardening of the sebaceous liquid. If this occurs, the glands may build up of the material it secretes and it will swell. This leads to thickening of the walls of the gland and leakage of oil into the lid itself, causing inflammation both within the gland and the eyelid. This inflamed enlargement is called chalazion which can appear either on upper or lower eyelid. If the obstructed gland has bacteria within it, the gland may become infected. This is called a hordeolum, which does resemble a pimple. A hordeolum may be tender to touch. A chalazion is not an infection but may follow or precede a hordeolum. A hordeolum is often referred to as a stye.


Diabetic Eye Condition

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition occurring in persons with diabetes, which causes a progressive damage to the retina, the light sensitive lining at the back of the eye. It is a serious sight-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy is the result of damage to the tiny blood vessels that nourish the retina. They leak blood and other fluids that cause swelling of retinal tissue and clouding of vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.


Age-related Macular Degeneration

AMD is a degeneration of the macula, which is the part of the retina responsible for the sharp, central vision. Because the macula primarily is affected in AMD, central vision loss may occur.



keratoconus-1Keratoconus, meaning “cone-shaped,” is a condition in which the cornea (the clear front window of the eye) progressively becomes steeper and thinner. This abnormal shape of the cornea can cause distortion of visual images.